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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 66-71

Evaluation of short-term outcomes of impaired creatinine clearance in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A prospective cohort study at tertiary care center

1 Department of Cardiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Division of Cardiology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand
3 Department of Respiratory Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Pravesh Vishwakarma
Department of Cardiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow - 226 007, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_9_18

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Background: Chronic kidney disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and it has been shown to have poor outcomes. We evaluated the prevalence of impaired creatinine clearance and its impact on short-term clinical outcomes in patients admitted with ACS without prior documented chronic renal disease. Materials and Methods: The present study was an observational, prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary care center in North India. In patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACS, glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation. Patients with eGFR <90 mL/min were taken as study group and those with values >90 mL/min comprised control group. The study group was further categorized into three subgroups on the basis of eGFR (<30 mL/min; 30–59 mL/min; 60–89 ml/min). The primary outcomes compared between study and control group were major adverse cardiac event (MACE) (composite of death, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and arrhythmia). The secondary outcome measures were individual components of primary outcome. Results: Among the 200 enrolled patients with ACS, the prevalence of impaired creatinine clearance was 29.5%. The study cohort had higher rates of MACE (28.8 vs. 9.2%, P ≤≤ 0.0001), in-hospital mortality (13.6 vs. 3.5%, P = 0.009), and overall mortality (15.3 vs. 5.1%, P = 0.014) as compared to control group. However, the 30-day mortality was not significantly different. The MACE in the study subgroups was higher in eGFR 30–60 mL/min (odds ratio [OR] 3.97) subgroup followed by eGFR <30 mL/min (OR 3.04) and eGFR 60–90 mL/min (OR 1.38). Using eGFR <90 mL/min as cutoff (as compared to serum creatinine [SCr] >1.5 mg/dl) enhances the ability to predict death by 33% and MACE events by 143%. The OR for predicting death with various cutoff of eGFR was as follows: eGFR <30 ml/min – 3.61, eGFR: 30–60 ml/min – 4.2 and eGFR: 60–90 ml/min – 0.5. Conclusion: Almost one-third of the patients presenting with ACS have impaired creatinine clearance. Patients with impaired creatinine clearance have worse outcome in hospital vis-a-vis their contemporary groups with normal eGFR. eGFR is a better risk assessment parameter than SCr for predicting MACE and overall mortality in ACS patients.

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