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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-20

Clinical profile, microbiological spectrum, echocardiographic features, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with definite infective endocarditis: Experience and changes in patterns in two cohort of patients recorded at an interval of 10 years from a tertiary care cardiac center of South India


1 Department of Cardiology, Sri Jaydeva Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Cardiology, GMC, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
3 Department of Cardiology, Dr. RML IMS, Vibhutikhand, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Amresh Kumar Singh
Dr. RML IMS, Vibhutikhand, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_7_22

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Background and Objectives: Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious clinical problem with a persistently high morbidity and mortality, despite the availability of improved diagnostic and treatment modalities in the developing world. We examined the microbiological spectrum, clinical profile, echocardiographic features, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with definitive IE. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive cases of definitive IE, admitted between March 2017 and August 2018, at a tertiary care cardiac center (Thiruvananthapuram Medical College, India) were included in the study and followed for 6 months. We compared the clinical profile, other features and outcomes of currently enrolled patients (Group-1) with 10 years back (2007) cohort (Group-2) of IE patients (n = 25) at the same institution. Results: The mean age of the Group-1 was 44.7 (±11.6) years, whereas those in Group-2 were 48.6 ± 12.9. The overall male to female sex ratio was 2.2: 1. The rheumatic heart disease (RHD) was the most common predisposing factor accounting for nearly 40% of all cases in both groups, congenital cardiac lesions accounting for 20% in both groups. The most common significant valve lesion was mitral regurgitation (45% vs. 40% P = 0.032). Fever was the most common complaint at the time of hospital admission in both groups (80% vs. 96%). The most common complication was congestive heart failure in both groups (60% vs. 56%). Blood cultures were positive only in 35% patients from Group-1 to 48% from Group-2 (P < 0.01). The mean vegetation size in Group-1 was 7.6 mm and in Group-2 was 10.8 mm (P = 0.04). Patients with large-sized vegetation had increased incidence of heart failure, and embolic phenomena and mortality. Among Group-1, 5 (25%) patients have undergone surgery compared to Group-2, where only 4 (16%) patients have undergone surgery. The overall in hospital mortality in Group-1 was 5 (25%). Out of them, two patients expired after surgery (surgical mortality 40%). In Group-2, mortality was 7 (28%). Out of them, three patients expired after surgery (surgical mortality 42.8%). The majority (53.3%) of patients were in New York Heart Association Class II at the time of discharge. Conclusions: The average age of patients presenting with IE in India has increased, while the male predominance is maintained. RHD continues to be the most common predisposing factor. The lower culture positivity rate and lower rates of surgery are worrisome in Indian patients. Despite significant advances in medical technology over the last decade, mortality rate remains the same.


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