|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1-2
Preface to the first issue of Heart India 2022
Alok Kumar Singh
Department of Cardiology, Life Line Hospital, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||04-Apr-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||04-Apr-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||13-Apr-2022|
Dr. Alok Kumar Singh
Department of Cardiology, Life Line Hospital, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Singh AK. Preface to the first issue of Heart India 2022. Heart India 2022;10:1-2
In this issue of “Heart India,” we are publishing one review article, eight original research articles, and one case report. Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) have proximal hard caps and distal soft caps. In the first review article, Das et al. described the antegrade femoropopliteal CTO revascularization in detail along with one illustrative case report. Contrast media used to visualize the coronary vascular lumen might result in acute kidney injury after the procedure, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The development of CIN after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) results in increased morbidity and mortality. In the first original research article, Kakroo et al. have studied the risk factor profile, incidence, and relevance of the Mehran risk score to predict CIN in patients undergoing PCI. The overall incidence of CIN in this study was 14.8%. The incidence of CIN in the very high-risk group (Mehran risk score (MRS) >16) was substantially higher in our study (77.8%) as compared to the same group in Mehran study (57.3%).
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious disease of the endothelial surface of the heart or intracardiac devices, such as prosthetic heart valves and pacemaker leads. In the second original research article, Bhole et al. have studied the clinical profile, microbiological spectrum, echocardiographic features, and in-hospital outcomes of patients with definite IE: experience and changes in patterns in two cohorts of patients recorded at an interval of 10 years from a tertiary care cardiac center of South India. The average age of patients presenting with IE in India has increased, while the male predominance is maintained. Rheumatic heart disease continues to be the most common predisposing factor. The lower culture positivity rate and lower rates of surgery are worrisome in Indian patients. Despite significant advances in medical technology over the last decade, mortality rate remains the same.
Indians are more susceptible to develop coronary artery disease (CAD) as compared to the Western population with symptoms occurring 10 years earlier. In the third original research article, Joshi et al. have studied the clinical presentation, risk factors, and coronary angiographic profile of very young adults (≤30 years) presenting with first acute myocardial infarction (MI) at a tertiary care center in Rajasthan, India. Obstructive CAD (vessel lumen stenosis ≥70%) was found in 18 (81.8%) patients. Very young adults presented with less extensive CAD as compared to elderly likely due to less atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in them. The major modifiable risk factors in very young Indian population are smoking and dyslipidemia as per this study.
The left ventricular (LV) thrombus is a known complication of MI and it usually occurs in areas of poorly contracting LV muscle as a result of endocardial injury with associated inflammation. In the fourth original research article, Dahiya et al. have studied the role of novel oral anticoagulant in the treatment of LV thrombus in acute coronary syndrome in a case series. They have reported the case series of five patients who developed LV apical thrombus after acute coronary syndrome. Four patients had anterior wall ST-elevation MI (STEMI) whereas one patient had inferior wall STEMI. One of the patients with anterior STEMI also had COVID pneumonitis. All of these patients received triple antithrombotic therapy consisting of tablet aspirin 75 mg OD, tablet clopidogrel 75 mg OD, and tablet rivaroxaban 20 mg OD for a 3-month duration. Repeat ECHO after 3 months showed a complete resolution of LV thrombus in all of their cases.
In the fifth original research article, Tiwari et al. have studied the role of palliative PCI in severely symptomatic complex CAD patients who did not undergo coronary artery bypass surgery. Authors of this study have concluded that palliative PCI provided a significant benefit regarding improvement in Seattle Angina Questionnaire-angina frequency (AF) and quality of life scores, over short term (6 months), as compared to OMT alone in patients with severely symptomatic complex CAD, who could not undergo coronary artery bypass grafting.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can involve several organs of the body including the heart. The most common being COVID-induced myocarditis and subsequent complications such as heart failure and arrhythmia. In the sixth original research article, Roy et al. have studied the cardiovascular involvement in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from a tertiary care infectious disease hospital of India. A total of 108 patients were studied in this study. The mean age of the patients was 50 (±5.6 years). The most common risk factor was the combination of hypertension and diabetes, found in 44 patients (40.7%) followed by hypertension alone found in 31 patients (28.7%) and diabetes in 20 patients (18.5%). The most common presentation was asymptomatic myocarditis found in 37 patients with elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and High sensitivity (HS) Troponin I without any clinical features of heart failure.
Several small studies have suggested normative data related to cardiac chambers in infants and newborn over the past 50 years but none has been reported from the Indian subcontinent and no clear guidelines exists. In the seventh original research article, Halder et al. have studied the normal reference values of echocardiographic chamber dimensions in newborn infants from Eastern India – A pilot study.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common term used for any kind of heart disease present since birth. Recently, the live birth incidence of CHD has been reported to be <1% in many studies. In the eighth original research article, Jain et al. have studied the detection rate of unrepaired CHDs in adults presenting for echocardiography for any reason. During the study, 6675 TTEs were done in the study population, out of which 89 (1.33%) were detected with unrepaired CHD. Acyanotic CHD was detected in 81 (91%), whereas the rest 8 (9%) had cyanotic CHD.
Ventricular thrombus is a serious complication of ischemic heart disease, particularly acute MI and various nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Early detection and management are required to prevent serious complications of embolism such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, and mesenteric ischemia. In the last, Parvathareddy et al. have reported six cases of large ventricular thrombus incidentally diagnosed on echocardiography along with the review of the literature.
| References|| |
Mehran R, Nikolsky E. Contrast-induced nephropathy: Definition, epidemiology, and patients at risk. Kidney Int Suppl 2006;100:S11-5.
Prabhakaran D, Singh K. Premature coronary heart disease risk factors & reducing the CHD burden in India. Indian J Med Res 2011;134:8-9.
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