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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 38-44

Cardiovascular involvement in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: Observation from a tertiary care infectious disease Hospital

1 Department of Cardiology, R G Kar Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, ID & BG Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Department of Infectious diseases, IPGMER & SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Medicine, NRS Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rammohan Roy
Department of Cardiology, R G Kar Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_103_21

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Background: Covid 19 pneumonia presents with various cardiovascular manifestations. The proposed mechanisms of cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 are direct invasion of myocardial cell by the virus, hyper- inflammatory state secondary to cytokine storm, increased angiotensin II, low ACE2 levels, antiphospholipid antibodies and increased platelet reactivity which contribute significantly to thrombus formation in systemic and pulmonary vasculature. Objectives: To find out various cardiovascular manifestation of patients admitted with covid 19 pneumonia. Methodology: A retrospective observational study had been conducted in a tertiary care infectious disease hospital from July 2020 to December 2020 that included a total of 108 patients. Results: Most common risk factor were combination of hypertension and diabetes( 40.7%) followed by hypertension alone (28.7% )and diabetes in 18.5% patients. Most common presentation was asymptomatic myocarditis found in 37 patients followed by sinus tachycardia in 34, sinus bradycardia in 18, Orthostatic hypotensionin in 16, Atrial fibrillation in 14, cerebrovascular accident in 9, Acute limb ischemia in 7 , and acute coronary syndrome in 4 patients. Asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction (Grade 2 or more ) found in 17 patients without any overt features of heart failure (all have raised NTproBNP and HSTrop I along with clinical features ). A positive correlation was found between D- dimer level and severity of pneumonia by CT severity score. Conclusion: A high index of suspicion and necessary investigation may be needed for early detection of myocarditis and to prevent any complication particularly fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death.

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