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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 113-120

The impact of administering intraoperative dexamethasone versus placebo on major complications and mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis


1 Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Leeds Teaching Hospital, Leeds, UK
3 Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
4 Research, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Madkaiker
Department of Cardio Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Ahmadabad, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_43_22

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Background: Inflammations resulting from cardiac surgical procedures have traditionally been controlled with corticosteroids such as dexamethasone. However, the use of these medications to attenuate the inflammatory responses from cardiac surgery remains contentious. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of administering dexamethasone intraoperatively on major complications and mortality compared to placebo interventions. Study Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The research was conducted on online databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials until August 5, 2022. The studies in the online databases were written between January 1, 2000, and August 1, 2022. The studies that were selected were scanned and analyzed based on an established eligibility criteria for the study. Results: Ten randomized and controlled trials were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The incidence of mortality was 2.2% (154 out of 7007 patients) in the dexamethasone group and 2.3% (164 out of 7038 patients) in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR],0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75–1.01; P = 0.73; I2 = 0%). Myocardial infarction incidence was 1.88% (88 out of 4685 patients) in the dexamethasone group and 2.12% (100 out of 4708 patients) in the placebo group (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.66–1.18; P = 0.39; I2 = 9%). The incidence of stroke for the dexamethasone group was 1.56% (70 out of 4488 patients) and 1.82% (82 out of 4511 patients) in the placebo group (OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.62–1.18; P = 0.34; I2 = 0%). The prevalence of new onset atrial fibrillation was 32.3% (797 out of 2469 patients) for dexamethasone and 34.7% (859 out of 2478 patients) for placebo (OR, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.80–1.01; P = 0.08; I2 = 0%). The incidence of renal failure was slightly higher in the placebo group with 1.58% (108 out of 6857 patients) compared to the dexamethasone group 0.97% (66 out of 6823 patients) (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45–0.83; P = 0.002; I2 = 0%). Conclusion: According to this review, dexamethasone does not result in a significant decrease in incidences of mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke. However, the medication was associated with decreased incidences of renal failure and atrial fibrillation in a majority of the studies.


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